Argyle, also known as argyll, is clothing pattern which consists of a checkerboard of interlocking diamonds. Many argyle layouts also feature layers of overlapping motifs, adding a sense of movement, texture, and three-dimensionality.
The name of the pattern comes from the region of Argyll in Western Scotland, from which the design originated.
Argyle initially grew in popularity shortly after World War I, and has recently seen a resurgence due to the wearing of the pattern by several prominent golfers. Argyle has also recently been adopted by several high-end fashion designers, cementing its place in the world of style.
Argyle has a sporty connotation from its golf background, and its associations with high fashion can lend it an air of eliteness. However, I would avoid wearing argyle sweaters or shirts, unless you're going for a preppy or retro look, as they can come across a tad safe.
Argyle used in other areas of clothing works well, and can communicate that you're a guy that knows about style. Some examples: